CHEMISTRY OF METHANE
 
 
 
INTRODUCTION
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   Molecular formula = CH4
   Molecular mass = 16
   Empirical formula = CH4
   Empirical formula mass = 16
   State: Gas at room temperature.
   Occurrence: marsh, stagnant ponds.
   It is the major constituent of natural gas. Natural gas contains 94.6% methane.
STRUCTURE OF METHANE
 
    Composition of methane molecule:
   Methane molecule consists of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms (CH4).
    Geometry of methane:
   Methane molecule is tetrahedral in structure in which carbon is central atom and four H-atoms are    surrounding it in three-dimensions.
   Bond Angles:
   HCH-bond angles are 109.5o.
   Bond Length:
   All C-H bonds are 1.09Ao.
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METHOD OF PREPARATION OF METHANE
 
BY THE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF METHYL IODIDE:
                    CH3-I + H2   CH4 +HI
BY THE HYDROLYSIS OF ALUMINIUM CARBIDE:
      In laboratory methane can be prepared by boiling aliminium carbide with water.
                     Al4C3 + 12H2O    3CH4 +Al (OH)3
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
OF METHANE
 
   COMBUSTION REACTION:
   Combustion of methane is an exothermic reaction in which a large amount of energy is liberated. Due to    this property, methane is used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
               CH4 + 2O2    CO2 + 2H2O
   HALOGENATION:
   Replacement of halogen atom with H-atom of an organic compound is called Halogenation. It is a    substitution reaction. This reaction occurs in the presence of sun light. It is a free radical mechanism    eaction. The reaction will continue till the replacement of all four hydrogen atoms of methane with chlorine.
   CHLORINATION:
                   CH4 + Cl2    CH3Cl + HCl (chloro methane)
               CH3Cl + Cl2    CH2Cl2 +HCl (dichloro methane)
               CH2Cl2 + Cl2    CHCl3 + HCl (chloroform)
               CHCl3 + Cl2    CCl4 +HCl (carbon tetra chloride)
  
   OUTPUT:
   Since it is a chain reaction, therefore, it gives a mixture of different compounds.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
OF METHANE
 
   Methane is a colorless, odourless and non-poisonous gas.
   Melting point = -182.5oC.
   Boiling point = -169.5oC.
   Its molecule is symmetrical.
   It is lighter than air.
   It is slightly soluble in water but fairly soluble in ether and alcohol.
USES OF METHANE
 
Domestic and industrial fuel.
Shoe polish.
Printing ink.
Tyre manufacturing.
Manufacture of methyl alcohol.
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