PETROLEUM
 
PETROLEUM
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    The word petroleum is derived from the Latin word Petra means Rock and Oleum means Oil. Petroleum     is a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons. The composition of petroleum varies according to its     occurrence.

    Petroleum in solid form is called ASPHALT.

    Petroleum in liquid form is called CRUDE OIL.

    Petroleum in gaseous form is called NATURAL GAS.

    Petroleum is the most important natural source of fuel.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
 
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    The process of evaporating a liquid followed by condensation in which different fractions are     separated due to their different boiling point is called fractional distillation.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF PETROLEUM

    The refinery in which distillation of petroleum is carried out has the following components.

     A pipe-still
     Fractionating tower
     Condenser

PROCEDURE
 

    The petroleum to be refined is first heated in pipe-still at 371oC to 426oC. The pressure in the pipe is     so adjusted as to avoid evaporation of crude oil.

    The hot petroleum now goes to fractionating tower. Here pressure is released and the liquid is     vaporizes. The vapors go up the tower where hydrocarbons that have a high boiling point range are     condensed to liquid in the lower part of the tower.

    The other fractions like gasoline having lower boiling point range continue to move up the tower as     vapors which are then led to condenser where they are changed to liquid state.

    Condensed liquid is collected on shelves and is then drained off to separate storage tanks

REFINING
 
    The fractions s obtained are not completely pure. Now petroleum is re-distilled to produce good     quality petroleum and remove impurities.
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