HYDROCARBONS
 
 
 
SATURATED HYDROCARBONS
 
Hydrocarbons in which all the valencies of carbon atoms are fully utilized
by single covalent bonds are known as saturated hydrocarbons.
   REACTIVITY:
   
They are saturated in respect to chemical combination with the other compounds and elements.    Saturated hydrocarbons are chemically inert to some extent.
   e.g. Alkanes (methane, ethane, propane etc.)
   CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS:
   Characteristic reactions of saturated hydrocarbons are "substitution reaction".
                       
   ADDITION REACTIONS:
   They do not undergo addition reactions in any circumstances.
   For latest information , free computer courses and high impact notes visit : www.citycollegiate.com
UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS
 
Hydrocarbons in which all the valencies of carbon atoms are not fully utilized
by single covalent bonds are known as "unsaturated hydrocarbons".
They contain at least one double or triple bond in their structure.
   e.g. Alkenes, Alkynes
   CH2=CH2 ,
   REACTIVITY:
   They are very reactive hydrocarbons. Their high reactivity is due to the presence of pi-bond in their    structure.
   CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS:
   Their characteristic reactions are addition reactions.
   SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS:
   Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkynes) may undergo substitution reactions.
     
ALKANES
 
   Alkanes are open chain saturated hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons) in which all carbon atoms are    bonded to each other by single covalent bond. Each carbon is tetrahedrally surrounded by H-atoms .    Since all the valencies of carbon atoms are fully utilized by sigma bond with H-atoms therefore, they
   are also known as "SATURATED HYDROCARBONS".
   GENERAL FORMULA:                 CnH2n+2
   where,
   n=number of C-atoms
   EXAMPLES : methane , ethane, propane , butane etc.
   TYPE OF REACTIONS:
    Characteristic reactions of alkanes are "substitution reactions".
  alkanes are relatively chemically inert to some extent that's why they are also called "PARAFFINS".
 
ALKENES
 
   Alkenes are open chain unsaturated hydrocarbons in which a carbon-carbon bond is a double    covalent bond.
   GENERAL FORMULA :            
CnH2n
   Where, n=number of carbon atoms and n is greater than 1.
   They are very reactive organic compounds due to the presence of PI-BOND. They are also known as    "OLEFINS" .
   TYPE OF REACTIONS:
       
Characteristic reactions of alkenes are "addition reactions".
   EXAMPLES : ethene, propene etc.
 
ALKYNES
 
   Alkynes are open chain unsaturated hydrocarbons in which one bond between any two carbon atoms    is a triple covalent bond.
   GENERAL FORMULA:                CnH2n-2
   Where, n=number of C-atoms and n is greater than 1.
   Alkynes are more unsaturated hydrocarbons than alkenes. They are also very reactive compounds.
   TYPE OF REACTIONS:
        Characteristic reactions of alkynes are "addition reactions".
   EXAMPLES : ethyne, propyne etc.
 
   For latest information , free computer courses and high impact notes visit : www.citycollegiate.com
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