CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HNO3
 
 
WITH MAGNESIUM
DILUTE ACID
 
Mg +2HNO3 Mg(NO3)2+H2
CONCENTRATED ACID
 
4Mg+10HNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + 3H2O+NH4NO3
WITH MANGANESE
Mn + 2HNO3 Mn+2(NO3)2+H2
 
WITH ZINC
4Zn+10HNO3 Zn(NO3)2+3H2O+NH4NO3
WITH COPPER
DILUTE ACID
3Cu + 8HNO3 3Cu(NO3)2 +4H2O+2NO
CONCENTRATED ACID
Cu+4HNO3 Cu(NO3)2+2H2O +2NO2
WITH MERCURY
Hg+4HNO3 Hg(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2
AQUA REGIA
One part HNO3 and three parts of HCl when mixed together, the mixture so obtained is called Aqua Regia. Noble metals such as gold,platinum are not dissolved either of the acid alone but in Aqua Regia they easily dissolve due to liberation of atomic Cl which is highly reactive.
HNO3 + 3HCl NOCl + 2H2O+2Cl
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF H2SO4
WITH BASE
 
H2SO4+NaOH NaHSO4+H2O
H2SO4+2NaOH Na2SO4+H2O
WITH ZINC
 
Zn+H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
WITH ALUMINIUM
 
2Al+3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3+3H2
WITH COPPER
 
Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4 +2H2O+SO2
WITH NON-METALS
 
C+2H2SO4 CO2+2SO2 + 2H2O
S+2H2SO4 3SO2+2H2O
2P+3H2SO4 2H3PO4+3SO2
SULPHURIC ACID AS A DEHYDRATING AGENT
 
Sulphuric acid removes hydrogen and oxygen in certain compounds in the ratio 2:1 and behaves as a powerful dehydrating agent.
Following examples illustrate its dehydrating ability.
With Formic acid:                  HCOOH + H2SO4 CO + H2O+H2SO4                  
with Sugar:                   C12H22O11+H2SO4 12C+11H2O+H2SO4.               
With Hydrous copper sulphate :    {CuSO4.5H2O}+H2SO4 CuSO4+5H2O +H2SO4
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