MOVEABLE PULLEY
 
In a moveable pulley, one end of the rope which passes around the pulley is tied to a firm support ‘O’ and effort ‘P’ is applied to the other end. The load is hung from the hook of the block. As the load is applied by two segments of rope,
the effort becomes twice of the applied value i.e.
EFFORT = 2 x P
In equilibrium condition we have
Load = Effort
W = 2P
Dividing both sides by P
W/P = 2
but [W/P = M.A]
thus
M.A. = 2
This shows that a moveable pulley can lift a load double the effort.
INCLINED PLANE
 
Any smooth plane surface which makes an angle q with the horizontal surface is called an “Inclined plane”.
Where 0o <
q <90o or values of q lies between 0o and 90o .
USES OF
INCLINED PLANE
 
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It is a simple machine and is used to raise heavy loads by applying little effort.
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
OF INCLINED PLANE
 
In the figure AB is an inclined plane which makes an angle q with the horizontal plane. A load ‘W’ is being raised from A to B by applying an effort ‘P’. If we neglect the force of friction between load and inclined plane
Output = input
Weight
x height = effort x distance
W x h = P x L
W*h/P = L
W/P = L/h
OR
W/P = 1/h/L
in right angled DOAB
Sin
q = OB/AB
Sin
q = h/L
[ perpendicular
/hypotenuse = sinq]
therefore
W/P = 1/sin
q
but [W/P = M.A.]
Thus
M.A. = 1/sin
q
This expression shows that mechanical advantage of an inclined plane depends upon the value of sinq.
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