MACHINES
 
Define the following terms:
 
MACHINE
A machine is a device by means of which work can be performed easily or in a convenient manner.
A machine can be used :
To lift heavy loads by applying little force.
To enlarge magnitude of force
To increase rate of work done
To change the direction of force
Example of simple machines are : Lever, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw etc.
EFFORT OR POWER
The power directly applied to a machine to lift a load is called Effort or Power. It is denoted by ‘P’.
LOAD OR WEIGHT
The weight lifted by a machine is called Load. It is denoted by ‘W’.
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
The ratio of weight (load) lifted by a machine to the force(effort) applied on a machine is called mechanical advantage of the machine.
Greater the value of mechanical advantage of a machine, more easier is the work done.
Mathematically,
M.A = load/effort
OR
M.A = W/P
UNIT:
It has no unit.
INPUT
Amount of work done on a machine by a given effort (force) is called input of a machine.
Input = effort x distance through which effort acts
OR
input = P x d
OUTPUT
Amount of work done by a machine on the load (weight) is called output of the machine.
Output = load x distance covered by the load
OR
Output = W x D
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EFFICIENCY
The ratio of output of a machine to the input of machine is called its efficiency.
h = output/input
h = (W
x D)/(P x d)
Efficiency in %:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
h
= (W
x D)/(P x d )x100
UNIT:
It has no unit.
IDEAL MACHINE
An ideal machine is a hypothetical machine whose output is equal to its input.
For an ideal machine
output = input
Efficiency of an ideal machine is 100% because there is no loss of energy in an ideal machine due to friction or any other means that can waste useful energy.
M.A of an ideal machine is d / h.
LEVER
Lever is a simple machine which is used to lift heavy bodies or heavy load in a very easy way.
Lever consists of a rigid bar capable to rotate about a fixed axis called fulcrum. Effort is applied at one end of the bar and weight can be lifted from the other end.
TYPES OF LEVER
There are three kinds of lever depending upon the positions of load , effort and fulcrum.
FIRST KIND OF LEVER
In the first kind of lever, the fulcrum F lies between effort (P) and load (W).
Example: common balance, seesaw, scissors, handle of hand pump.
SECOND KIND OF LEVER
In the second kind of lever, load (W) lies between effort (P) and fulcrum (F).
Example: door, nutcracker, punching machine.
THIRD KIND OF LEVER
In the third kind of lever, effort (P) lies between load (W) and fulcrum (F).
Example: forceps, jaws, human forearm, firetong.
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