FERTILIZERS
FERTILIZERS
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"Fertilizers are chemical compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur,
sodium, which are essential for the growth and development of crops."
    Fertilizers are generally inorganic salts such as ammonium nitrate,ammonium sulphate,     superphosphate, triple phosphate and potassium nitrate etc. Urea is organic in nature. Fertilizers     makeup deficiency of soil, keep it slightly alkaline or neutral. It should be noted down that the soil     having PH below 3 or above 10 is sterile.
FUNCTIONS OF FERTILIZERS
 
    Furnish adequate supply of the elements to the plants to become fertile again.
    Supply of necessary food.
    Maintain PH of soil in between 7.00 to 8.00
TYPES OF FERTILIZERS
 

    There are two types of fertilizers.
    Organic fertilizers
    Mineral fertilizers

MINERAL FERTILIZERS
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    Some most important mineral fertilizers are :
    Nitrogenous fertilizers
    Potassic fertilizers
    Phosphatic fertilizers
NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS
 
    Essential component of these fertilizers is nitrogen.
    EXAMPLES:
    UREA (NH2-CO-NH2) [remember it is an organic fertilizer]
    AMMONIUM NITRATE (NH4NO3)
    AMMONIUM SULPHATE (NH4)2SO4
POTASSIC FERTILIZERS
 
    Chile saltpeter
    Potassium nitrate etc.
PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS
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    Phosphates are excellent fertilizers. The presence of phosphorus in the soil is vital for successful         plant propagation. There are two important phosphoric fertilizers.
    Super phosphate
    Triple phosphate
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SUPER PHOSPHATE

    Super phosphate is the most important fertilizer, which is a mixture of calcium dihydrogen phosphate     and calcium sulphate (gypsum). This fertilizer is produced by treating rock phosphate or phosphorite     [Ca3(PO4)2] with sulphuric acid in special chambers.

Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 ® 2Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4
    Since rock phosphate is insoluble in water, it cannot serve as an effective source of phosphorus for     plants. It is therefore converted in to more soluble form, Ca(H2PO4)2 mixture of it with gypsum is     known as super phosphate. It contains 18% to 20% of assimiliable P2O5.
TRIPLE PHOSPHATE
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    Rock phosphate is decomposed by phosphoric acid to produce triple phosphate.

Ca3(PO4)2 + 4H3PO4 ® 3Ca(H2PO4)2
    It contains 48% of assimiliable P2O5 .
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