PROPERTIES OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS
 
 
MOLECULAR FORM
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Covalent compound exists as a separate molecules because they are formed by neutral atoms (they are electrically neutral) and the forces of attraction between these molecules is small.
STATE
 
Due to weak intermolecular forces, generally covalent molecules or covalent compounds are liquids and gases. However, some covalent substances are solids like iodine.

Liquid (H2O, HCl, Br2)
Gas (CO2, H2, Cl2,NH3)

VOLATILITY
 
They are volatile.
MELTING POINT, BOILING POINT (THERMAL STABILITY)
 
Generally they have low M.P and B.P.
SOLUBILITY IN WATER
 
Covalent compounds are generally insoluble in water.
SOLUBILITY IN THE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
 
Covalent compounds are non-electrolyte because they do not conduct electricity.
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
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Non-polar covalent compounds do not conduct electricity.
Polar covalent compounds conduct small amount of electricity.
COORDINATE COVALENT BOND
 
The type of chemical bond in which one atom provides shared pair of electron for bond formation is called "Coordinate Covalent Bond".
OR
Chemical bond formed between two atoms due to sharing of electron pair in which only one atom provides shared pair of electron for the formation of bond, is known as coordinate covalent bond or dative bond.
In the formation of coordinate bond other atom does not provide electron for sharing. It is one sided sharing.
Formation of coordinate covalent bond is the property of atoms that have lone pair of electrons.
The atom that provides electron pair is called "Donor".The other which takes it is called "Acceptor".
Symbol:
Dative bond is represented by an arrow (®), pointing from donor atom to the acceptor.
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Examples:
                                                        Ammonium ion                Hydronium ion
 
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