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Three States of Matter
 
Gas laws
Boyle’s law
   Introduction
   Boyle’s law is a quantitative relationship between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature.
   Statement
   "The volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to pressure if temperature remains      constant ". Mathematical representation of Boyle’s law
According to Boyle’s law

V µ 1/P

V= (constant)(1/P)
PV=constant
At P1 pressure
P1V1 = constant ------------------(1)
At P2 pressure
P2V2 = constant ------------------(2)
Comparing (1) & ( 2)
P1V1 = P2V2
.
   Second statement
   "At constant temperature, the product of pressure and volume of a gas remains constant "
   Graphical representation of Boyle’s law
   Graph between P & V at constant temperature is a smooth curve known as "parabola"
   Graph between 1/P & V at constant temperature is a straight line.
Charles law

   Introduction

   It is quantitative relation between volume and absolute temperature of a gas at constant pressure.

   Statement

   "The volume of a given mass of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to absolute    temperature"

   Second statement

   "The volume of a given mass of a gas increases or decreases by 1/273 times of it’s original    volume at 0 0C for every degree fall or rise of temperature at given pressure."

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   Mathematical representation

Let the volume of a gas at T Kelvin is V
Then according to Charles’s law

V µ T
V = (constant) T

V/T = constant

At T1 k
V1/T1 = k ---------------(1)
At T2 k
V2/T2 = k ---------------(2)

Thus
V1/T1 = V2/T2

   Third statement

   By using above equation ,Charles’s law can also be stated as:

   "The ratio of volume to absolute temperature of a gas at given pressure is always constant"

   Graphical representation

   Graph between Volume and absolute temperature of a gas at constant pressure is a "straight line"

   Absolute scale of temperature or absolute zero
   If the graph between V and T is extra plotted, it intersects T-axis at -273.16 0C At -273.16 0C volume of    any gas theoretically becomes zero as indicated by the graph.
   But practically volume of a gas can never become zero. Actually no gas can achieve the lowest possible    temperature and before -273.16 0C all gases are condensed to liquid. This temperature is referred to as    absolute scale or absolute zero. At -273.16 0C all molecular motions are ceased.
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