a 
Three
States of Matter


Gas
laws


Boyle’s
law


Introduction
Boyle’s law is a quantitative relationship between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature. Statement "The volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to pressure if temperature remains constant ". Mathematical representation of Boyle’s law 

According
to Boyle’s law
V µ 1/P V=
(constant)(1/P)
PV=constant At P_{1} pressure P_{1}V_{1} = constant (1) At P_{2} pressure P_{2}V_{2} = constant (2) Comparing (1) & ( 2) P_{1}V_{1} = P_{2}V_{2} . 

Second
statement "At constant temperature, the product of pressure and volume of a gas remains constant " 

Graphical
representation of Boyle’s law Graph between P & V at constant temperature is a smooth curve known as "parabola" 

Graph between 1/P & V at constant temperature is a straight line.  
Charles
law


Introduction 

It is quantitative relation between volume and absolute temperature of a gas at constant pressure.  
Statement 

"The volume of a given mass of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to absolute temperature"  
Second statement 

"The volume of a given mass of a gas increases or decreases by ^{1}/_{273} times of it’s original volume at 0 ^{0}C for every degree fall or rise of temperature at given pressure." 

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Mathematical representation 

Let
the volume of a gas at T Kelvin is V V/T = constant
At T_{1} k Thus 

Third statement 

By
using above equation ,Charles’s law can also be stated as:
"The ratio of volume to absolute temperature of a gas at given pressure is always constant" Graphical representationGraph between Volume and absolute temperature of a gas at constant pressure is a "straight line" 

Absolute scale of temperature or absolute zero  
If the graph between V and T is extra plotted, it intersects Taxis at 273.16 0C At 273.16 0C volume of any gas theoretically becomes zero as indicated by the graph.  
But practically volume of a gas can never become zero. Actually no gas can achieve the lowest possible temperature and before 273.16 0C all gases are condensed to liquid. This temperature is referred to as absolute scale or absolute zero. At 273.16 ^{0}C all molecular motions are ceased.  