ELECTROLYSIS OF COPPER CHLORIDE
 
 
ELECTROLYSIS OF COPPER CHLORIDE
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   Copper chloride is ionized in water as follows:
CuCl2 èCu+2 + 2Cl-1
   When an electric current is passed through the aqueous solution of CuCl2, Cu+2 ions migrate towards    cathode and Cl-1 ion towards anode.
REACTION AT CATHODE
 
Cu+2 + 2e- èCu (Reduction)
 
REACTION AT ANODE
 
2Cl-1è Cl-1 + 2e- (Oxidation)
 
OVER ALL REACTION
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Cu+2 + 2e-è Cu
2Cl-1 è Cl2 + 2e-
..........................................
 
Cu+2 + 2Cl-1 è Cu + Cl2
 
RESULT
 
   Copper deposited on cathode.
   Cl2 gas liberated trough anode
 
ELECTROLYSIS O F WATER
 
   Water is a weak electrolyte because it conducts very little amount of electric current. In order to    electrolyze water , a little amount of an electrolyte (salt or acid) is added to water, which makes it an    electrolyte. Generally sodium sulphate as added.
IONIZATION OF WATER
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H2O è H+ + OH-1
 
   When an electric current is passed through water H+ ions are deposited at cathode and OH- ions are    deposited at anode.
REACTION AT CATHODE
 
4H+ + 4e- è 2H2 (Reduction)
 
REACTION AT ANODE
 
4OH-è 2H2O + O2 + 4e- (Oxidation)
 
RESULT
 
2H2O è 2H2 + O2
 
SPECIFIC HEAT
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   Specific heat of a substance is defined as:
   "The amount of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1gm of the substance through    1 degree centigrade".
   It is denoted by "C".
   Unit of specific heat is Calorie/gram.k
   Formula:
LATENT HEAT OF FUSION
 
   It is defined as :
    "The amount of heat energy required to melt 1 gm of a solid substance at its melting point".
   It is denoted by Hf.
   Unit of latent is calorie/gram.
   Formula:
LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION
 
   Latent heat of vaporization is defined as "The amount of heat energy required to vaporize one gram of a    liquid at its boiling point ".
   It is denoted by Hv.
   Unit of latent is calorie/gram.
   Formula:
HEAVY WATER
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   Water consists of deuterium (D) isotope of hydrogen is called heavy water. Formula of heavy water is    D2O. It has same chemical properties as that of ordinary water but differ slightly in physical properties
   It has high density than H2O.
   Its freezing point is 3.97 C.
   It has low vapor pressure than ordinary water.
   It has smaller refractive index than ordinary water.
   It is used as moderator in nuclear reactors to slow down neutrons.
   It is used as Tracer in chemical and biological research.
   Molecular Mass:2 x 2 + 16 = 20 amu.
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