AMMETER-VOLTMETER
 
 
AMMETER
 
    Ammeter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to measure electric current through the circuit.
CONNECTION OF AMMETER IN CIRCUIT
 
    An ammeter is always connected in series to a circuit.
SYMBOL
 
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CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER
INTO AMMETER
    Since Galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument therefore it canít measure heavy currents. In order to     convert a Galvanometer into an Ammeter, a very low resistance known as "shunt" resistance is     connected parallel to Galvanometer. Value of shunt is so adjusted that most of the current passes     through the shunt. Fig . Rs shunt resistance. In this way a Galvanometer is converted into Ammeter     and can measure heavy currents without fully deflected.
VALUE OF SHUNT RESISTANCE
    
    where
    Rs = Shunt resistance
    I =   Current to be measured
    Rg = Resistance of galvanometer
    Ig = Current passing through
            the galvanometer
VOLT METER
 
    Voltmeter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to measure potential difference between two     points in a circuit.
CONNECTION OF VOLTMETER IN CIRCUIT
 
    Voltmeter is always connected in parallel to a circuit.
SYMBOL
 
CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO VOLTMETER
 
    Since Galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument, therefore it can not measure high potential     difference. In order to convert a Galvanometer into voltmeter, a very high resistance known as "series     resistance" is connected in series to Galvanometer.
VALUE OF SERIES RESISTANCE
    
    where
    RX = series resistance
    V =   potential difference to be measured
    Rg = Resistance of galvanometer
    Ig = Current passing through
            the galvanometer
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