SUGARS
TYPE OF SUGAR
There are two classes of sugars.
REDUCING SUGARS
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The sugars that can reduce Tollen's Reagent and Fehling's Solution are known as Reducing Sugars They contain free aldehydic or ketonic group along with hydroxyl (OH) group on the carbon adjacent to these groups."
Examples: All monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose.
All oligosaccharides except Sucrose
NON- REDUCING SUGARS
Sugars that do not reduce Tollen's Reagent and Fehling's Solution are known as Non- reducing sugars. They do not contain free aldehydic or ketonic group with adjacent (-OH) group.
Examples: Sucrose and all polysaccharides
CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES ACCORDING TO MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
According to number of C- atoms or the number of simple sugar units present in the molecule, carbohydrates are divided into three major classes:
Monosaccharides
Oligo
saccharides
Poly
saccharides
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MONO SACCHARIDES
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LS-20, BLOCK 15, F.B.AREA, KARACHI.
Carbohydrates that can not be divided into simpler carbohydrate units by hydrolysis are known as monosaccharides. Generally they Contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms. Monosaccharides containing aldehydic group are called Aldoses and those containing ketonic group are called ketoses
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OLIGOSACCHARIDE
Carbohydrates which on hydrolysis produce 2 to 10 monosaccharide units are known as
oligo saccharide.
Example: Sucrose, maltose, lactose.
POLY SACCHARIDES
Carbohydrates that produce more than 10 monosaccharide units on hydrolysis are known as poly saccharide. .
Example: glycogen, starch, amylase, amylopectin, cellulose.
TYPE OF POLY SACCHARIDES
According to their origin polysaccharides are divided into two classes.
1 Animal poly saccharides: which are found in animals for exam glycogen ( stored in muscles and liver)
2 plant poly saccharides: which are found in pants for exam starch cellulose.
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES
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LS-20, BLOCK 15, F.B.AREA, KARACHI.

Carbohydrates are the main constituent of our food. Major part of our daily energy requirement is furnished by carbohydrates.
Some important facts are:
1. RIBOSE & DEOXYRIBOSE: play an important role in human metabolism. They are found in the nucleus of cell as RNA & DNA. They are heredity carriers.
2. SUGAR & STARCH : get hydrolyzed into glucose by various enzymes present in digestive juices. Glucose is transferred to body cells through blood. Slow combustion of glucose in body cells provides energy necessary for our body functions.
Our body stores part of glucose for rainy days in liver in the form of glycogen. During illness and fasting, glycogen hydrolyzed to glucose to supply energy .
3. CELLULOSE: It is biologically important for animals. Human can not digest it because the enzymes that are necessary to digest cellulose are absent in human digestive juices but these enzymes are present in animal. That is why human can not eat grass and plants like animals.
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