CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
BIOCHEMISTRY
Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of chemical and physical processes take place in the living organisms by means of which chemical compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and mineral are transformed into one another by the cell itself in order to maintain its well organized structure and activities. Main area of study of biochemistry is food and nutrition. Selection of food groups, their digestion, assimilation, enzymes and their functions are all studied in biochemistry.
FOOD
The group of naturally occurring chemicals that take part in life sustaining processes is called "FOOD"
NUTRIENT
The valuable component of food which continues life sustaining processes is called "NUTRIENT"
NUTRIENTS OF BALANCE FOOD
       Nutrients are made up of six classes.
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Minerals
Vitamins
Water
PURPOSE OF FOOD
      The food is required by the body to achieve three purposes.
Energy supply
Growth and maintenance of tissues.
Regulation of body processes.
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CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are an important class of naturally occurring organic compounds
which are the main constituent of our food.
Carbohydrates can be defined as the Polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones
or the substances which on hydrolysis produce such compounds".
Glucose (C6H12O6), Fructose (C6H12O6), Sucrose (C12H22O11) , galactose, Starch, Cellulose etc.
CALORIFIC VALUE OF CARBOHYDRATES
One gram carbohydrates provide 4 calories of energy
SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES
Cereals, maize, rice, oats, barley,millets,potato,sweet potato,roots,sugar,honey,beat root,fruit,sugar cane.
CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES
ACCORDING TO TASTE
On the basis of taste, carbohydrates can be divided into two categories:
1. Sugars
2. Non-Sugar
SUGAR
"Carbohydrates which have sweet taste are known as Sugars. They are crystalline and water Soluble."
Example: glucose , sucrose, Fructose
NON-SUGAR
" Tasteless carbohydrates are known as Non- Sugars. They are amorphous and insoluble in water."
Example: Starch, cellulose
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