REFINING OF BLISTER COPPER
 
Blister copper is refined by an electrolytic process. Blister copper in the form of a large plate is made as anode. A thin plate of pure copper is cathode. A solution of CuSO4 is used as an electrolyte. The impure blister copper dissolves at the anode. During electrolysis pure copper is deposited in the form of pure copper at the cathode.
REACTION AT ANODE
 
At anode oxidation of copper takes place.
Cu ® Cu+2 + 2e-
REACTION AT CATHODE
 
At cathode reduction of copper-ions takes place.
Cu+2 + 2e- ® Cu
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ORE
 
Those minerals which are considered worth mining commercially form the extraction of one or more metals are known as ores.
GANGUE
 
Ores mostly consists of a mixture of minerals with useless or worth less rocky materials which are called gangue.
USES OF LEAD
 
It is used in the preparation of Tel (C2H5)4Pb tetra ethyl lead which is used to increase the efficiency     of petrol.
Lead is also used in car batteries.
Lead is used in the manufacture of paints and pigments.
Lead is used in alloy formation such as "solder".
Lead is used in the glazing of pottery.
WRITE THE NAME AND FORMULA OF THE IMPORTANT ORES OF IRON?
Heamatite (Fe2O3)
Limonite (2Fe2O3.3H2O)
Magnetite (Fe3O4)
Iron pyrite (FeS2) (fool’s gold)
WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT ORES OF COPPER?

Chalopyrite (CuFe2S3)
Copper glance (CuS)
Malachite (CuCO3.Cu(OH)2)
Chalcocite (Cu2S)
Cuprite (Cu2O)
WRITE THE NAMES OF IMPORTANT ORES OF Zn?
Zinc blende (ZnS)
Zincite (ZnO)
Smithsonite (ZnCO3)
SLAG
   
Slag is the by-product of the extraction of iron. Slag is a mixture of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate. It is used in the manufacture of cement and building materials
WRITE THE FORMULA OF THE FOLLOWING?
Galena
Cerussite
Anglesite
Whitelead pigment
Alumina
 
PbS
PbCO3
PbSO4
Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2
Al2O3
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